It is a part of our makeup to avoid discomfort. A lot of us, if not most of us, prefer to cling to the made-up certainty of a belief or an aspirational goal, than to embrace the scary uncertainties of reality.

False certainties can seem harmless when taken at face value. The problems come when we become so comfortable with or dependant on these false certainties that we take them to be reality. And we start to make real-world decisions based on them.

What sort of false certainties were businesses like Kodak, Polaroid, Ansett Airlines, Woolworths UK and Lehmann Brothers working under when they went under?

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